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3. Effective Governance
3.1 Democratic Representation
3.2 Lack of Corruption
3.3 Efficient Administration
In-Country Assessment Information

3. Effective Governance

Goal – A popularly elected government free of corruption and functioning efficiently and transparently enough to guarantee economic freedom to individuals and support equitable property markets

 

3.1 Democratic Representation

Core Question: Does the country have free and open elections for the leadership and can citizens engage in free enterprise? No, Very Weak.  Under the  Mohamed Morsi regime, the government often made promises to provide infrastructure and other services to informal settlement dwellers in exchange for their election vote, which facilitated informal developments. Political situation in Egypt has been in flux since the elected president Morsi was removed from office by the Egyptian army on July 3 and suspended the constitution in the wake of street protests against his one-year rule.

Voice & Accountability

3.1.1   Are citizens able to elect their government and do they enjoy freedom of expression, association and a free media? No – Very Weak – Percentile Rank – 16.0 Trend ¯

Source: Governance Matters 2011, World Bank, www.govindicators.org

 

3.1.2   Are citizens free to form political and civic organizations free of state interference and surveillance? No – Weak – Score 3.95 out of 10

Overall Ranking – 115th out of 167

 

Source: The Economist Intelligence Unit Democracy Index https://www.eiu.com/public/topical_report.aspx?campaignid=DemocracyIndex2011

Public Information

Very Weak; Score 54 out of 100

3.1.3   Are there regulations governing conflicts of interest in the executive and legislative branches of government? No – Executive Score 50 out of 100 – Very Weak; Legislative Score 36 out of 100 – Very Weak

3.1.4   Can citizens access legislative processes and documents? No – Score 0 out of 100 – Very Weak (2010)

Source: Global Integrity Report 2010 – https://www.globalintegrity.org/global/the-global-integrity-report-2008/egypt/

 

Market Intervention

Overall Ranking – Very Weak 125th out of 179 Trend ¯

3.1.5   To what extent does the government intervene in the private sector including state owned industries? Score 69.4 out of 100 with a higher score indicating less intervention

3.1.6   To what extent does the government control prices? Score 58.4 out of 100 with a higher score indicating less control

Source: 2013 Index of Economic Freedom – Heritage Foundation
http://www.heritage.org/index/country/egypt#limited-government

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3.2 Lack of Corruption

Core Question:         Is the public sector transparent and free of corruption? No, Weak. In terms of governance and corruption, the government uses unregistered and informal settlements to gain votes for democratic elections.

Transparency

3.2.1   What is the perceived level of corruption in the country? Weak – Ranking – 112nd   out of 183; Score 2.9 out of 10 Trend ¯

Source: Transparency International 2011 http://www.transparency.org/cpi2011/results/

Integrity Mechanisms

3.2.3   A National Integrity System is a framework where the principle institutions that contribute to integrity, transparency and accountability in a society can address corruption in a systematic way. Does a National Integrity System exist? No, Weak.  Egypt has a critical level of corruption risk in defense industry. There is hardly any accountability of  the defense and security establishments.

Source: Transparency International
http://www.transparency.org/news/pressrelease/20120206_middle_east_and_north_african_governments_have_high_risks_of_defen

 

 

Extralegal Payments

Survey Question

SQ 11  How often do companies report that officials and/or companies expect additional payments to “expedite” services or gain business?  Strong –15.2% of firms say they are expected to make unofficial payments

Source: Enterprise Surveys, World Bank, 2008
http://www.enterprisesurveys.org/Data/ExploreEconomies/2008/egypt
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3.3 Efficient Administration

Core Question: Are quality services and qualified civil servants available to the public through the efficient use of public money free of corruption? No, Very Weak. The civil service and legislative branches lack important accountability processes.

Size of Government

 

3.3.1   What is the size of government relative to GDP? 69.4% – More than 40% considered optimum – Very Weak

 

Source: 2013 Index of Economic Freedom, Heritage Foundation
http://www.heritage.org/index/country/egypt#limited-government

 

 

Civil Service

 

3.3.2   What is the quality of the civil service? Very Weak – Score 49 out of 100

 

Source: Global Integrity Report 2010 – https://www.globalintegrity.org/global/the-global-integrity-report-2008/egypt/

Government Effectiveness

 

3.3.3   What is the overall effectiveness of the government? Weak – Percentile Ranking – 32.2 Trend ­

 

Source: Governance Matters 2011, World Bank, www.govindicators.org
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In-Country Assessment Information

FQ 6. What is the actual experience of practitioners in dealing with the government?

Laws in Egypt are complicated. Bribes are typically paid to government officials to facilitate processes of registrations and licensing. Otherwise, legal processes may provide no clear answer.

Source: Egypt Field Questions from Lin Mao

http://english.ahram.org.eg/NewsContent/1/64/77189/Egypt/Politics-/EU-calls-for-Morsis-release,-democratic-elections-.aspx

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