3. Effective Governance
3.1 Democratic Representation
3.2 Lack of Corruption
3.3 Efficient Administration
In-Country Assessment Information

3.  Effective Governance – Strong

Goal – A popularly elected government free of corruption and functioning efficiently and transparently enough to guarantee economic freedom to individuals and support equitable property markets


3.1 Democratic Representation

Core Question:         Does the country have free and open elections for the leadership and can citizens engage in free enterprise? Yes – Strong – There are issues with citizens’ ability to elect their government and enjoy freedom of expression, association and free media, but the ability to form political and civic organizations is strong along with a very high level of economic freedom. Citizens also have better access to public information than before.


3.1.1  Voice & Accountability – Strong          Are citizens able to elect their government and do they enjoy freedom of expression, association and a free media? No – Weak – Percentile Rank – 44.6 – Trend ­↑

Source: Worldwide Governance Indicators, Colombia 2011, World Bank,          Are citizens free to form political and civic organizations free of state interference and surveillance? Yes – Strong – Score 8.82 out of 10 for civil liberties

Overall Ranking – 57th out of 167

Source: The Economist Intelligence Unit Democracy Index 2012


3.1.2  Public Information

Overall Rating – Moderate; Score 80 out of 100 (2011)          Are there regulations governing conflicts of interest in the executive and legislative branches of government?  Executive Score 74 out of 100 – Moderate; Legislative Score 90 out of 100 – Strong          Can citizens access legislative processes and documents?  – Score 83 out of 100 – Strong

Source: Global Integrity Report 2011,


3.1.3  Market Intervention

Overall Freedom Ranking – Very Strong – 37th out of 177 Trend ­↑          To what extent does the government intervene in the private sector including state owned industries? Government spending scores 75.2 out of 100 and accounts for 29% of GDP.          To what extent does the government control prices? Score 78.7 out of 100 with a same score indicating same control as last year.

Source: 2013-Index of Economic Freedom – Heritage Foundation,



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3.2 Lack of Corruption

Core Question:         Is the public sector transparent and free of corruption? No, Weak. Although the need to pay elected officials extralegal payments to get things done is minimal, the perceived level of corruption is  relatively high and there is still a significant gap between the laws as written and as enforced though across the board.



3.2.1   What is the perceived level of corruption in the country? Weak Score 36 out of 100, Trend ­↑

Source: 2012 Corruption Perception Index, Transparency International


Integrity Mechanisms

3.2.2   A National Integrity System is a framework where the principle institutions that contribute to integrity, transparency and accountability in a society can address corruption in a systematic way. Does a National Integrity System exist? Yes – Weak, While almost all pillars are included and defined either through the Constitution or Legislative Decree there is a significant gap between the “letter of the law” and actual enforcement (2001).

Source: National Integrity System Assessment, Transparency International


Extralegal Payments

3.2.3   How often do companies report that officials and/or companies expect additional payments to “expedite” services or gain business? 2.8% of firms say they are expected to make unofficial payments – significantly lower than both other countries in the region and the overall rate for countries worldwide – Very Strong

Source: Enterprise Surveys, World Bank,
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3.3 Efficient Administration

Core Question:         Are quality services and qualified civil servants available to the public through the efficient use of public money free of corruption? Yes – Strong – Overall government is very effective and government spending is not an overly burdensome percentage of GDP. The quality of the civil service is better but there is still space for improvement.


Size of Government

3.3.1   What is the size of government relative to GDP? 29% – 25-30% considered Strong

Source: 2013 Index of Economic Freedom, Heritage Foundation,


Civil Service

3.3.2   What is the quality of the civil service? Moderate – Score 72 out of 100

 Source: Global Integrity Report Scorecard Colombia 2011


Government Effectiveness

3.3.3   What is the overall effectiveness of the government? Strong – Percentile Ranking – 62.6, Trend ­↑

Source: Worldwide Governance Indicators, Colombia 2011, World Bank,


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In-Country Assessment Information

FQ7                What is the actual experience of practitioners in dealing with the government?

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